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The social work profession has a long-standing involvement in public health. It involves assessment, diagnosis, treatment and evaluation of individual, interpersonal and societal problems to assist individuals, families, groups, communities and organizations to achieve optimum psychosocial and social functioning. These roles can be performed by persons with specific expertise in areas such as general medicine, emergency work, paediatrics, geriatrics, oncology, neurology, psychiatry, and palliative and end-of-life care. The overall essence of social work practice is to restore, maintain and enhance social functioning by mobilizing strengths, supporting coping capacities, modifying dysfunctional patterns of relating and acting, linking people to necessary resources, alleviating environmental stressors and providing psychosocial education related to wellness and subjective wellbeing. In healthcare and rehabilitation, social work aims to prevent and reduce negative social and psychosocial consequences of neurological diseases. Social workers, as part of the multidisciplinary health care team, provide assessment and appropriate interventions to encourage and teach neurologically ill patients and their carers on how to use their own resources to manage their diseases; personality and social environment (stressful hospitalizations) difficulties to achieve optimum recovery/rehabilitation and quality of life.